E. Abt, J. F. Sam, P. Gray, and L. P. Robin, Cadmium and leas in cocoa powder and 512 chocolate products in the US Market, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, vol.11, issue.2, pp.92-513, 2018.

E. O. Afoakwa, Chocolate Science and Technology, 2010.


D. Argüello, E. Chavez, F. Lauryssen, R. Vanderschueren, E. Smolders et al., Soil properties and agronomic factors affecting cadmium concentrations in cacao 518 beans: A nationwide survey in Ecuador, Science of The Total Environment, vol.649, pp.120-127, 2019.


S. T. Beckett, Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use, 2008.


H. D. Belitz, W. Grosch, and P. Schieberle, Food Chemistry, p.523, 2009.

. Verlag,

D. Bertoldi, A. Barbero, F. Camin, A. Caligiani, and R. Larcher, Multielemental 525 fingerprinting and geographic traceability of Theobroma cacao beans and cocoa products, 2016.

, Food Control, vol.65, pp.46-53

B. Biehl, B. Meyer, M. B. Said, and R. J. Samarakoddy, Bean spreading: A method for 528 pulp preconditioning to impair strong nib acidification during cocoa fermentation, p.529, 1990.

. Malaysia, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol.51, issue.1, pp.35-45


H. A. Castillo-michel, N. Hernandez, A. Martinez-martinez, J. G. Parsons, and J. R. Peralta-videa, , p.532

&. Gardea-torresdey and J. L. , Coordination and speciation of cadmium in corn 533 33 seedlings and its effects on macro-and micronutrients uptake, Plant Physiology, p.534, 2009.

, Biochemistry, vol.47, pp.608-614

E. Chavez, Z. L. He, P. J. Stoffella, R. S. Mylavarapu, Y. C. Li et al., Concentration of cadmium in cacao beans and its relationship with soil cadmium 537 in southern Ecuador, Science of the Total Environment, vol.533, pp.205-214, 2015.


, Report of the 12th session of the codex committee on 540 contaminants in foods. 41st session of the joint FAO/WHO food standards programme 541 codex alimentarius commission, Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2018.

D. Vuyst, L. Weckx, and S. , The Functional Role of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Bean 543, 2015.

, Biotechnology of Lactic, vol.544

B. Ravel and M. Newville, ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-604 ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT, Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, vol.12, pp.537-605, 2005.

R. F. Schwan and A. E. Wheals, The microbiology of cocoa fermentation and its role in 607 chocolate quality, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol.44, issue.4, pp.205-221, 2004.


E. Smolders and J. Mertens, Heavy Metals in Soils, Heavy Metals 610 in Soils: Trace Metals and Metalloids in Soils and their Bioavailability, pp.283-311, 2013.

. Dordrecht,

S. S. Thompson, K. B. Miller, and A. S. Lopez, Cocoa and Coffee, 2007.

. Beuchat, Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, pp.837-850

D. C. Washington,

G. M. Thyssen, C. Keil, M. Wolff, M. Sperling, D. Kadow et al., , 2018.

, Bioimaging of the elemental distribution in cocoa beans by means of LA-ICP-TQMS, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol.617, pp.187-194


R. Vanderschueren, D. Montalvo, B. De-ketelaere, J. A. Delcour, and E. Smolders, The 620 elemental composition of chocolates is related to cacao content and origin: A multi, p.621, 2019.

, Analysis

J. E. Villa, R. R. Peixoto, and S. Cadore, Cadmium and Lead in Chocolates 624, 2014.

, Commercialized in Brazil, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol.62, pp.8759-8763


K. Vogel-miku?, P. Pongrac, P. Kump, M. Ne?emer, J. Sim?i? et al., , p.627

B. Regvar and M. , Localisation and quantification of elements within seeds of Cd/Zn 628 hyperaccumulator Thlaspi praecox by micro-PIXE, Environmental Pollution, vol.147, pp.50-59, 2007.


, Exposure to cadmium: a major public health concern, World Health Organization, 2010.

, Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments

R. L. Yanus, H. Sela, E. J. Borojovich, Y. Zakon, M. Saphier et al., , p.634

A. Lorber and Z. Karpas, Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: An ICPMS 635 study, Talanta, vol.119, pp.1-4, 2014.

Q. Zhai, Y. Guo, X. Tang, F. Tian, J. Zhao et al., Removal of 637 cadmium from rice by Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation, Food Control, vol.96, pp.638-357, 1800.

L. Zhang, Q. Lei, Y. Cheng, Y. Xie, H. Qian et al., Study on 640 the Removal of Cadmium in Rice Using Microbial Fermentation Method, Journal of Food, p.641, 2017.

, Science, vol.82, issue.6, pp.1467-1474