La construction d'un bien commun à travers une démarche de sélection participative : le cas du blé dur adapté à l'AB

Abstract : In 2001 farmers appealed to INRA researchers to initiate a breeding program for developing durum wheat varieties adapted to organic farming. Implemented in two contrasting durum wheat production areas in France, it has mobilized farmers, processors and researchers of biological and social sciences. The collective challenge is ambitious: to reconcile the diversity of objectives, constraints and skills of each participant mobilized while focusing on debate on the assumptions of varietal improvement project. The originality of the approach rests on two innovations: (i) technical because it integrates decentralized selection devices under actual production conditions varieties, (ii) social because it merges skills and knowledge (expert, empirical, etc.). To explain it, the article describes the process and construction effects of a common good, namely the development of an ideotype and its evolution towards a "realtype" adapted to organic practices and the chain quality requirements. The first part of this paper presents the characteristics of occupations of all stakeholders, and aims to understand the specific and generic expectations and to identify shared objects in the confrontation of steps perspectives. Faced with divergent expectations and the complexity of the standards and parameters involved, the analysis shows the difficulty of building compromises. The second part problematizes the process of circulation, movement and evolution of content knowledge, constructed and negotiated the service of a common path "to several branches" that allows the emergence of new fields of interesting agronomic research questions for those involved in this participatory selection. Finally, the lessons from this participatory approach should provide answers to important issues of diversification of French agriculture by giving farmers the opportunity to actively participate in building a sustainable development of the sectors and territories. The varieties resulting from this participatory way allowed to structure the durum wheat organic chain and are today largely disseminated inside.
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Tiffany Garcia Parrilla, Fanny Chrétien, Dominique Desclaux, Gilles Trouche. La construction d'un bien commun à travers une démarche de sélection participative : le cas du blé dur adapté à l'AB. Agronomie, Environnement et Sociétés, Association Française d'Agronomie, 2016, Savoirs agronomiques pour l'action, 6 (2), pp.71-81. ⟨hal-02020911⟩

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