T. M. Agbede, Nutrient availability and cocoyam yield under different tillage practices, 2008.

, Soil Tillage Res, vol.99, pp.49-57

J. A. Andersson and S. Souza, From adoption claims to understanding farmers and 193 contexts: A literature review of Conservation Agriculture (CA) adoption among 194 smallholder farmers in southern Africa, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ, vol.187, pp.116-132, 2014.

N. H. Batjes, Estimation of soil carbon gains upon improved management within 196 croplands and grasslands of Africa, Environ. Dev. Sustain, vol.6, pp.133-143, 2004.

R. Cardinael, V. Umulisa, A. Toudert, A. Olivier, L. Bockel et al., Revisiting 198 IPCC Tier 1 coefficients for soil organic and biomass carbon storage in agroforestry 199 systems, Environ. Res. Lett, vol.13, pp.1-20, 2018.

A. Charles, P. Rochette, J. K. Whalen, D. A. Angers, M. H. Chantigny et al., , 2017.

, Global nitrous oxide emission factors from agricultural soils after addition of organic 202 amendments: A meta-analysis, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ, vol.236, pp.88-98

P. P. Chivenge, H. K. Murwira, K. E. Giller, P. Mapfumo, and J. Six, Long-term impact of 204 reduced tillage and residue management on soil carbon stabilization: Implications for 205 conservation agriculture on contrasting soils, Soil Tillage Res, vol.94, pp.328-337, 2007.

M. Corbeels, R. Cardinael, K. Naudin, H. Guibert, and E. Torquebiau, The 4 per 1000 goal 207 and soil carbon storage under agroforestry and conservation agriculture systems in sub, p.208, 2019.

, Saharan Africa. Soil Tillage Res, vol.188, pp.16-26

M. Corbeels, J. De-graaff, T. H. Ndah, E. Penot, F. Baudron et al., , p.210

G. Schuler, J. Nyagumbo, I. Rusinamhodzi, L. Traore, K. Mzoba et al., Understanding the impact and adoption of conservation agriculture in Africa: A 212 multi-scale analysis, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ, vol.211, pp.155-170, 2014.

C. Feller and M. H. Beare, Physical control of soil organic matter dynamics in the tropics, 1997.

, Geoderma, vol.79, pp.69-116

K. Fujisaki, T. Chevallier, L. Chapuis-lardy, A. Albrecht, T. Razafimbelo et al., , p.216

Y. B. Ndour and J. Chotte, Soil carbon stock changes in tropical croplands are 217 mainly driven by carbon inputs: A synthesis, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ, vol.259, pp.147-158, 2018.

K. E. Giller, M. Corbeels, J. Nyamangara, B. Triomphe, F. Affholder et al., , p.219

P. , A research agenda to explore the role of conservation agriculture in African 220 smallholder farming systems, Field Crops Res, vol.124, pp.468-472, 2011.

E. J. Gonzalez-sanchez, O. Veroz-gonzalez, G. Conway, M. Moreno-garcia, and A. Kassam, , p.222

S. Mkomwa, R. Ordoñez-fernandez, P. Triviño-tarradas, and R. Carbonell-bojollo, , 2019.

, Meta-analysis on carbon sequestration through conservation agriculture in Africa

, Tillage Res, vol.190, pp.22-30

B. W. Griscom, J. Adams, P. W. Ellis, R. A. Houghton, G. Lomax et al., , p.226

W. H. Shoch, D. Siikamäki, J. V. Smith, P. Woodbury, P. Zganjar et al., , p.227

J. Campari, R. T. Conant, C. Delgado, P. Elias, T. Gopalakrishna et al., , p.228

M. Herrero, J. Kiesecker, E. Landis, L. Laestadius, S. M. Leavitt et al., , p.229

S. Polasky, P. Potapov, F. E. Putz, J. Sanderman, M. Silvius et al., Natural climate solutions, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci, vol.230, pp.11645-11650, 2017.

, Agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU), in: IPCC Guidelines 232 for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, vol.4, p.pp, 2006.

R. Lal, Soil quality changes under continuous cropping for seventeen seasons of an 234, 1998.

, Alfisol in western Nigeria. Land Degrad. Dev, vol.9, pp.259-274

E. Lugato, A. Leip, and A. Jones, Mitigation potential of soil carbon management 236 overestimated by neglecting N2O emissions, Nat. Clim. Chang, vol.8, pp.219-223, 2018.

K. Mei, Z. Wang, H. Huang, C. Zhang, X. Shang et al., 238 Stimulation of N2O emission by conservation tillage management in agricultural lands: 239 A meta-analysis, Soil Tillage Res, vol.182, pp.86-93, 2018.

B. Minasny, B. P. Malone, A. B. Mcbratney, D. A. Angers, D. Arrouays et al., , p.241

V. Chaplot, Z. S. Chen, K. Cheng, B. S. Das, D. J. Field et al., , p.242

S. Y. Hong, B. Mandal, B. P. Marchant, M. Martin, B. G. Mcconkey et al., , p.243

S. O'rourke, A. C. Richer-de-forges, I. Odeh, J. Padarian, K. Paustian et al., , p.244

L. Poggio, I. Savin, V. Stolbovoy, U. Stockmann, Y. Sulaeman et al., , p.245

T. G. Van-wesemael, B. Winowiecki, and L. , Soil carbon 4 per mille, Geoderma, vol.292, pp.246-59, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01480573

K. Paustian, O. Andrén, H. H. Janzen, R. Lal, P. Smith et al., , p.248

M. Noordwijk and P. L. Woomer, Agricultural soils as a sink to mitigate CO2 249 emissions. Soil Use Manag, vol.13, pp.230-244, 1997.

W. M. Post and K. C. Kwon, Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and 251 potential, Glob. Chang. Biol, vol.6, pp.317-328, 2000.

D. S. Powlson, C. M. Stirling, M. L. Jat, B. G. Gerard, C. A. Palm et al., , p.253

K. G. , Limited potential of no-till agriculture for climate change mitigation, 2014.

. Clim and . Chang, , vol.4, pp.678-683

D. S. Powlson, C. M. Stirling, C. Thierfelder, R. P. White, and M. L. Jat, Does conservation 256 agriculture deliver climate change mitigation through soil carbon sequestration in 257 tropical agro-ecosystems?, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ, vol.220, pp.164-174, 2016.

D. S. Powlson, A. P. Whitmore, and K. W. Goulding, Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate 259 climate change: a critical re-examination to identify the true and the false, Eur. J. Soil, vol.260, 2011.

. Sci, , vol.62, pp.42-55

L. Rusinamhodzi, M. Corbeels, M. Van-wijk, M. Rufino, J. Nyamangara et al., , 2011.

, A meta-analysis of long-term effects of conservation agriculture on maize grain yield 263 under rain-fed conditions, Agron. Sustain. Dev, vol.31, pp.657-673

P. Smith, O. Andrén, T. Karlsson, P. Perälä, K. Regina et al., , 2005.

, Glob. Chang. Biol, vol.11, pp.2153-2163

P. Smith, D. Martino, Z. Cai, D. Gwary, H. Janzen et al., , p.268

F. O'mara, C. Rice, B. Scholes, O. Sirotenko, M. Howden et al., , p.269

V. Romanenkov, U. Schneider, S. Towprayoon, M. Wattenbach, and J. Smith, , 2008.

, Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci, vol.363, pp.789-813

R. Sommer, B. K. Paul, J. Mukalama, and J. Kihara, Reducing losses but failing to 273 sequester carbon in soils -the case of conservation agriculture and integrated soil fertility 274 management in the humid tropical agro-ecosystem of western Kenya, 2018.

. Environ, , vol.254, pp.82-91

P. R. Steward, A. J. Dougill, C. Thierfelder, C. M. Pittelkow, L. C. Stringer et al., , p.277

G. E. Shackelford, The adaptive capacity of maize-based conservation agriculture, vol.278, p.13, 2018.

, systems to climate stress in tropical and subtropical environments: a meta-regression of 279 yields, Agric. Ecosyst. Environ, vol.251, pp.194-202

C. M. Swanepoel, M. Van-der-laan, H. L. Weepener, C. C. Du-preez, and J. G. Annandale, , 2016.

, Review and meta-analysis of organic matter in cultivated soils in southern Africa, Nutr

, Cycl. Agroecosystems, vol.104, pp.107-123

M. S. Torn, S. E. Trumbore, O. A. Chadwick, P. M. Vitousek, and D. M. Hendricks, Mineral 284 control of soil organic carbon storage and turnover, Nature, vol.389, pp.170-173, 1997.

T. Vågen, R. Lal, and A. B. Singh, Soil carbon sequestration in sub-Saharan Africa: a 286 review, Land Degrad. Dev, vol.16, pp.53-71, 2005.